Sentence Completion – II

Fill up the blanks with the most appropriate choice, from any of the words given below the passage.

For a long time, cancer has been treated with open surgery, which is a ___1___ style, thereby  ___2___ pain for the patients who  ___3___ surgery. However, technology has developed tremendously  ___4___ the past two decades and this has mitigated the pain of the patients to  ___5___.

 

The surgeries for cancer-related  ___6___ is an area,  where there are continuous efforts to  ___7___ the treatment pattern. Cancer affects the cells of the human body, causing massive  ___8___ of its cells. This expands and  ___9___ to the other parts of the body, thereby causing threat to life. Surgery is a significant course of treatment and  ___10___ tumours are eliminated, which will prevent  ___11___ permanent damage to the organs.

In open surgery, the surgeon manually makes a single  ___12___ , through which the surrounding tissues and nodes are removed. Open  ___13___ help patients greatly, but have their own  ___14___ problems. Loss of blood, long recovery span and hazard of infection still  ___15___ as major threats in this system.

1)Blank No.1

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a. Conventional.
Explanation: Area of testing: Contextual Vocabulary skill.
Generally in medical terms, ‘open surgery’ is an old and traditional style. The other three options do not fit in contextually here. Hence the best option is ‘conventional’.

2)Blank No.2

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c. Inflicting.
Explanation: Area of testing: Specific vocabulary skill.
Open surgeries cause tremendous pain for the patients. So the chosen word should indicate the suffering.

a. Alleviating – Make less severe.
b. Bewitching – Enchanting or delightful.
c. Inflicting – Cause to be suffered by something.
d. Captivating – Capable of attracting or charming.

Hence the best option is ‘inflicting’.

3)Blank No.3

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d. Undergo.
Explanation: Area of testing: Grammar skill.
The subject is ‘patients’ (a plural subject) and the context is general in nature. Hence a verb which is plural and in the present tense is to be used. The actual meaning of ‘undergo’ is ‘to experience or be subjected to something that is typically unpleasant.

Hence the best option is ‘undergo’

4)Blank No.4

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a. Over.
Explanation: Area of testing: Grammar skill.
The preposition ‘over’ is used to refer to ‘extended periods of time’. Whereas the preposition ‘in’ is used in a more specific sense. The other two prepositions ‘with and within’ do not contextually fit in.
Hence the best option is ‘over’.

5)Blank No.5

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b. to a great extent.

Explanation: Area of testing: Comprehension skill & also vocabulary skill.
Last line of the 1st paragraph of the passage: “has mitigated the pain of the patients”. The meaning of the word ‘mitigate’ is to ‘reduce’. So it is necessary to know the meaning of the above word to find out the answer for this question. Once the meaning has been found out, it will be easy to fix the correct option as ‘to a great extent’.

6)Blank No.6

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c. Ailments.

Area of testing: Vocabulary and comprehension skill.

‘Ailment’ means ‘an illness” and ‘hazard’ means ‘risk or danger’. The option ‘infections’ will not fit in contextually and the option ‘diagnose’, even though might appear to be a possible choice, will not fit in grammatically in a correct manner.

Hence the best option is ‘ailments’.

7)Blank No.7

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a. Reinforce.
Area of testing: Specific vocabulary skill.

‘Reinforce’ means ‘strengthen or support.’ ‘Augment’ means ‘make greater or increase’. Even though, both seem to be relevant options ‘reinforce’ is a better option, if seen in the given context. The other two options ‘weaken or clear’ are not relevant.

Hence the best option is ‘reinforce’.

8)Blank No.8

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b. Multiplication.

Area of testing: Comprehension skill

Paragraph – 2 & Line -2 & 3. Cancer affects the cells of the human body, causing massive multiplication of its cells. Here the pronoun ‘its’ pertains to the disease ‘cancer’ and hence contextually ‘multiplication’ is the correct choice.

9)Blank No.9

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c. Spreads.

Explanation: Area of testing: Grammar skill.

Paragraph -2: - Line -3 – ‘This expands and spreads to the other parts of the body.’
Two verbs have been used in the sentence. The first verb ‘expands’ is in the simple present tense and hence the second verb should also be in same tense, due to the rule of continuity of tenses.

Hence the best option is ‘spreads.’

10)Blank No.10

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c. Malignant.

Explanation: Area of testing: Specific vocabulary skill.

‘Benign’ means ‘gentle and kind’. In medical terms it means ‘not harmful in effect.’
‘Malignant’ means ‘evil in nature.’ In medical terms it means ‘very virulent or infectious.’
‘Massive’ means ‘very huge in size’ and has nothing to do with medicine.
‘Infection’ seems to be relevant, but will not fit in grammatically.

Hence the best option is ‘malignant’.

11)Blank No.11

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c. Causing.

Explanation: ‘causing’ is used as a gerund here. ‘To causing’ is a wrong usage and the infinitive ‘to cause’ will not be a fitting option.

Hence the best option is ‘causing’.

12)Blank No.12

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a. Incision.

Explanation: Area of testing: Specific vocabulary skill.

‘Incision’ means ‘a surgical cut made in skin or flesh’ (a medical term)
‘Insertion’ means ‘the act of inserting something.’
‘Injection’ means ‘an act of being injected.”
‘Inundation’ means ‘abundance of people or things / flooding’

Hence the best choice is ‘incision’.

13)Blank No.13

Open surgeries help patients

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b. Surgeries.

Explanation: Grammar skills.

Here the context is general and in such situations the plural form of the noun is used.

Hence ‘surgeries’ is the right choice.

14)Blank No.14

The synonym of ‘inherent’ is

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b. Essential or characteristic attribute.

Explanation: Area of testing: Specific vocabulary skill.

‘Inherent’ refers to something that is characteristic of something or inbuilt by default. ‘Inherent problems’ means ‘problems which come along with the surgery.

15)Blank No.15

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d. Remain.

Explanation: Area of testing: Grammar skill

Paragraph -3. Line No.3 – ‘Loss of blood, long recovery span and hazard of infection still remain as major threats in this system.,

As per Subject-Verb-Agreement, the plural verb ‘remain’ is to be used, since the subject is a complex one consisting of 3 parts viz. loss of blood, long recovery span and hazard of infection.